Psoriasis can be worrying, especially when you see your child struggle with itching or discomfort.

For most kids, psoriasis is limited to just a few patches that usually respond well to treatment. Cases that are more serious cases might require more aggressive treatment.

But the good news is that there are many options. If one treatment doesnt work, another probably will.

Psoriasis (suh-rye-uh-sus) is a non-contagious disease that causes skin cells to build up on the surface of the skin, forming itchy red patches (plaques) and thick scales. It can appear anywhere on the body but is most commonly found on the scalp, knees, elbows, and torso.

Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) condition that can get better or worse seemingly at random. It may go away completely before suddenly reappearing.

Right now, theres no cure for psoriasis, but a number of good options are available to treat the symptoms. Lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy diet and weight, also can help ease the symptoms.

Doctors arent sure why people get psoriasis, but they do know how the disease works. White blood cells known as T lymphocytes or T cells are part of the immune system. They travel through the bloodstream fighting off bacteria, viruses, and other things that cause illnesses. When someone has psoriasis, however, T cells attack healthy skin as if they were trying to fight an infection or heal a wound.

Skin cells, which are made deep in the skin, normally take about a month to rise to the surface, where they die and are sloughed off. When psoriasis triggers T cells to attack healthy skin, the immune system responds by sending more blood to the area and making more skin cells and more white blood cells. This forces skin cells to rise to the surface in a few days instead of a month. The dead skin and white blood cells cant be shed quickly enough, and they build up on the surface of the skin as thick, red patches. As the skin cells die, they form silvery scales that eventually flake off.

Psoriasis isnt contagious. Some people inherit the genes that make them susceptible to having it. About 40% of people with psoriasis have a family member who also has the disease.

Risk factors that can increase the chances of psoriasis outbreaks include:

People with psoriasis will most likely experience one or more of the following symptoms:

There are many different types of psoriasis that each have their own symptoms. Some of the more common types of psoriasis include:

Usually, diagnosis of psoriasis is fairly straightforward. The doctor will physically examine your childs skin, scalp, and nails and ask you and your child some questions. The doctor may ask if anyone in your family has psoriasis and if your child recently had an illness or started a new medication.

On rare occasions, the doctor may remove a skin sample (a biopsy) to examine it more closely. A biopsy can tell the doctor whether its psoriasis or another condition with similar symptoms.

There are lots of ways to treat psoriasis, and different things work for different people. Be sure to talk with a doctor to figure out what treatments work best for your child.

A doctor might try one therapy and then switch to another, or recommend a combination of therapies. Its not always easy to find a therapy that works, and sometimes what works for a time will stop working. Its important to work closely with the doctor to stay on top of your childs treatment.